Technology interfaces have for a long time been designed to fit the skill sets, the cognitive tendencies and the information literacy of their users. Removing these constraints remains a challenge for technology developers. This area of engineering work has been known as Interaction Design (IxD). In recent years the attention has expanded beyond interest in the design of technology artefacts. Researchers, designers and product developers have shifted their attention from human-computer interactions to human experiences of technologies. Within this more holistic space, the emphasis has shifted to providing users with delightful technology experiences. Besides IxD, the discipline of User Experience Design (UX) involves identifying functional specifications, visual design, information design, spatial experience, etc. In cases of service innovation, user experience is often understood as customer experience (CX) and modeled via customer journey maps. The figure below is borrowed from Dan Saffer (2008) and summarizes the panoply of user research disciplines.
For resource constrained users in developing countries, user experiences have become more comfortable and familiar. Digitalization has shifted their technology experiences from the literate to the visual. Communication via text and traditional literate forms has been replaced by communication via symbolic systems and images. This shift in the language paradigm has been fueled by lower prices for devices and connectivity, and has brought a surge in demand for multimedia mobile services.